Pharmacology of Fluorides: Part 2
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Instead of fluoridating water, European countries more often choose different avenues.
Fire in the Mind
These two countries have among the lowest rates of tooth decay in all of Europe. Fluoridated milk programs reach millions of additional Europeans. A number of areas in Italy have water supplies with natural fluoride levels that already reach the optimal level that prevents decay. This is a major reason why Italy does not have a national program for water fluoridation. Finally, some countries in Europe do elect to adjust fluoride levels in community water systems.
Fluoridated water is provided to 12 million Europeans, mostly reaching residents of Great Britain, Ireland, and Spain. There are probably historical and sociological reasons for the different national approaches. I would love to hear from anyone who can point me in that direction.
For all the good science out there, it is swamped by misinformation — globs of pernicious memes spread by the amplifying effects of the Internet and the populist bias of the Google search algorithms. Extremist arguments find fertile ground among disenfranchised, psychologically disturbed, and alienated individuals. The situation whereby a small group of determined individuals can manage to deny half a century of science pays testimony to the power of emotional arguments and the potential of misleading propaganda.
Meanwhile I will leave you with this cartoon from It shows that from the beginning, fear of fluoride was accompanied by vaccine paranoia and a certainty that mental not just dental health programs were part of a Communist brainwashing plot. Fluoride Paranoia, Part 2. The authors recommended that the effectiveness of professionally applied topical fluoride products in modern clinical practice be evaluated.
Exposures from topical fluorides during professional treatment are unlikely to be significant contributors to chronic fluoride exposures because they are used only a few times per year. However, they could be important with respect to short-term or peak exposures. They were concerned with maximizing the retention in saliva to maximize the topical benefit of the fluoride. However, fluoride in saliva eventually will be ingested, so enhancing the retention of fluoride in saliva after dentifrice use also enhances the ingestion of fluoride from the dentifrice.
Fluoride supplements NaF tablets, drops, lozenges, and rinses are intended for prescriptions for children in low-fluoride areas; dosages generally range from 0. Appropriate dosages should be based on age, risk factors e. Although compliance is often considered to be a problem, inappropriate use of fluoride supplements has also been identified as a risk factor for enamel fluorosis Dillenberg et al. The dietary fluoride supplement schedule in the United States, as revised in by the American Dental Association, now calls for no supplements for children less than 6 months old and none for any child whose water contains at least 0.
Further changes in recommendations for fluoride supplements have been suggested Fomon and Ekstrand ; Newbrun ; Fomon et al. The Canadian recommendations for fluoride supplementation include an algorithm for determining the appropriateness for a given child and then a schedule of doses; no supplementation is recommended for children whose water contains at least 0. Fluoride either as hydrogen fluoride, particulate fluorides, or fluorine gas is released to the atmosphere by natural sources such as volcanoes 11 and by a number of anthropogenic sources.
In North America, anthropogenic sources of airborne fluoride include coal combustion by electrical utilities and other entities, aluminum production plants, phosphate fertilizer plants, chemical production facilities, steel mills, magnesium plants, and manufacturers of brick and structural clay reviewed by ATSDR Estimated airborne releases of hydrogen fluoride in the United States in were Airborne releases of fluorine gas totaled about 9, pounds or 4, kg TRI Anthropogenic hydrogen fluoride emissions in Canada in the mids were estimated at 5, metric tons 5.
Volcanic activity historically has been a major contributor of HF and other contaminants to the atmosphere in some parts of the world, with some volcanoes emitting 5 tons of HF per day Nicaragua or as much as 15 million tons during a several month eruption Iceland Durand and Grattan ; Grattan et al. Reprinted with permission; copyright , American Dental Association. Measured fluoride concentrations in air in the United States and Canada typically range from 0. Historically, concentrations ranging from 2. Ernst et al. Such standards are already in effect for fluoride emissions from primary and secondary aluminum production, phosphoric acid manufacture and phosphate fertilizer production, and hydrogen fluoride production ATSDR For most individuals in the United States, exposure to airborne fluoride is expected to be low compared with ingested fluoride EPA ; exceptions include people in heavily industrialized areas or having occupational exposure.
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- Performance and Culture in Platos Laws;
- Fluoride Paranoia, Part 2 - Fire in the Mind.
Lewis and Limeback used an estimate of 0. Heavy cigarette smoking could contribute as much as 0.
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Fluoride in soil could be a source of inadvertent ingestion exposure, primarily for children. Mean or typical concentrations in the United States are on the order of ppm. Soil fluoride content may be higher in some areas due to use of fluoride-containing phosphate fertilizers or to deposition of airborne fluoride released from industrial operations.
For a typical fluoride concentration in soil of ppm, therefore, estimated intakes of fluoride by children would be 0. For a kg child, the mass-normalized intake would be 0. Erdal and Buchanan estimated intakes of 0. In their estimates, fluoride intake from soil was times lower than that from fluoridated drinking water. Although pica in general is not uncommon among children, the prevalence is not known EPA Pica behavior specifically with respect to soil or dirt appears to be relatively rare but is known to occur EPA ; however, fluoride intake from soil for a child with pica could be a significant contributor to total fluoride intake.
For most children and for adults, fluoride intake from soil probably would be important only in situations in which the soil fluoride content is high, whether naturally or due to industrial pollution. Cryolite and sulfuryl fluoride are the two pesticides that are regulated for their contribution to the residue of inorganic fluoride in foods.
For food. Tolerance is the maximum amount of pesticide allowed to be present in or on foods. In the environment, cryolite breaks down to fluoride, which is the basis for the safety evaluation of cryolite and synthetic cryolite pesticides EPA a. Fluoride ions are also degradation products of sulfuryl fluoride EPA Thus, the recent evaluation of the dietary risk of sulfuryl fluoride use on food takes into account the additional exposure to fluoride from cryolite EPA Sulfuryl fluoride is also regulated as a compound with its own toxicologic characteristics.
Cryolite, sodium hexafluoroaluminate Na 3 AlF 6 , is a broad spectrum insecticide that has been registered for use in the United States since Currently, it is used on many food tree fruits, berries, and vegetables and feed crops, and on nonfood ornamental plants EPA a. The respective fluoride ion concentrations from a ppm aqueous synthetic cryolite Current tolerances for all commodities are at 7 ppm. Sulfuryl fluoride SO 2 F 2 , is a structural fumigant registered for use in the United States since for the control of insects and vertebrate pests.
As of January , EPA published a list of tolerances for sulfuryl fluoride use as a post-harvest fumigant for grains, field corn, nuts, and dried fruits 69 Fed. Concerns were raised that foods stored in the freezer during sulfuryl fluoride residential fumigation might retain significant amounts of fluoride residue. Scheffrahn et al. A later study reported fluoride residue above 1 ppm in food with higher fat contents e.
Dietary exposure for a food item is calculated as the product of its consumption multiplied by the concentration of the residue of concern. The total daily dietary exposure for an individual is the sum of exposure from all food items consumed in a day. A chronic dietary exposure assessment of. The database consists of food intake diaries of more than 15, individuals nationwide on two nonconsecutive days.
A total of 4, children from birth to 9 years of age are included in the survey. To ensure that the eating pattern of young children is adequately represented in the database, an additional survey was conducted in of 5, children years of age. The latter survey was designed to be compatible with the CSFII data so that the two sets of data can be pooled to increase the sample size for children. It is a translated version of the CSFII data that expresses the intake of consumed foods in terms of food commodities e.
EPA c. All foods and food forms e. For the analysis of fluoride exposure from cryolite, residue data taken from monitoring surveys, field studies, and at tolerance were adjusted to reflect changes in concentration during food processing e. For the fluoride exposure from post-harvest treatment with sulfuryl fluoride, the measured residues are used without further adjustment except for applying drawdown factors in grain mixing EPA In estimating fluoride exposure from both cryolite- and sulfuryl fluoride-treated foods, residue concentrations were adjusted for the percentage of crop treated with these pesticides based on the information from market share and agricultural statistics on pesticide use.breaautospa.com/zithromax-250mg-dosage.php
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Fluoride exposures from a total of forms of foods e. Residue data were taken from surveys and residue trials EPA No adjustments were made to account for residue concentration through processing or dehydration. Theoretically, the exposure from some processed foods e. However, these considerations are apparently offset by the.
Determination of fluoride in coal with the fluoride ion-selective electrode | Analytical Chemistry
The dietary fluoride exposure thus estimated ranged from 0. Fine-tuning the dietary exposure analysis using the comprehensive National Fluoride Database recently published by USDA for many foods also indicates that the total background food exposure would not be significantly different from the analysis by EPA, except for the fluoride intake from tea.
A closer examination of the residue profile used by EPA for background food exposure analysis reveals that 5 ppm, presumably a high-end fluoride concentration in brewed tea, was entered in the residue profile that called for fluoride concentration in powdered or dried tea. According to the USDA survey database , the highest detected fluoride residue in instant tea powder is Many pharmaceuticals, consumer products, and pesticides contain organic fluorine e.
Unlike chlorine, bromine, and iodine, organic fluorine is not as easily displaced from the alkyl carbon and is much more lipophilic than the hydrogen substitutes Daniels and Jorgensen ; PHS The lipophilic nature of the trifluoromethyl group contribute to the enhanced biological activity of some pharmaceutical chemicals.
The toxicity of fluorinated organic chemicals usually is related to their molecular characteristics rather than to the fluoride ions metabolically displaced. Fluorinated organic chemicals go through various degrees of bio-transformation before elimination. The metabolic transformation is minimal for some chemicals. For example, the urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent consists mainly of the unchanged parent compound or its fluorine-containing metabolites desethylene-, sulfo-, oxo-, and N -formyl ciprofloxacin Bergan Nevertheless, Pradhan et al.
The presumed steady state day 7 of repeated dosing hour urinary fluoride concentration was Another example of limited contribution to serum fluoride concentration from pharmaceuticals was reported for flecainide, an antiarrhythmic drug. The peak serum fluoride concentration ranged from 0. One to two weeks before the study, the subjects were given a poor fluoride diet, used toothpaste without fluoride, and had low fluoride 0. Other fluoride-containing organic chemicals go through more extensive metabolism that results in greater increased bioavailability of fluoride ion.
A collection of data on peak serum fluoride ion concentrations from exposures to halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane is given in Appendix B. These data serve to illustrate a wide range of peak concentrations associated with various use conditions e. It is not clear how these episodically elevated serum fluoride ion concentrations contribute to potential adverse effects of long-term sustained exposure to inorganic fluoride from other media, such as drinking water, foods, and dental-care products.
The extent of dermal absorption of topical fluorouracil cream varies with skin condition, product formulation, and the conditions of use. A group of widely used consumer products is the fluorinated telomers and polytetrafluoroethylene, or Teflon. EPA is in the process of evaluating the environmental exposure to low concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid PFOA and its principal salts that are used in manufacturing fluoropolymers or as their breakdown products EPA b.