Warriors and Weapons 3000 B.C. to A.D. 1700 in Colour

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The Ur of the Chaldees, where Abraham was born, seems to have been one of the northern Urs.


After the collapse of the Ur Dynasty, the colony continued its commercial way of life under the new masters who took over. Although the city was rebuilt, the center of power then moved north to Haran in the kingdom of Mari. This was the very city to which Terah took Abraham and the others.

  1. Warriors and Weapons 300 B.C. to A.D. 1700 in Colour - Saxtorph (1972);
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But Haran was not just the name of a flourishing city: it was also the name of Abraham's brother [the father of Lot], who had died before the family left Ur of the Chaldees [Genesis ]. Other cities in northern Mesopotamia were also named in accordance with Abraham's forefathers, as discovered by archaeologists excavating the region from In studying the clay tablets of reports from governors and commissioners of the era, they found the names of Terah [Abraham's father], Nahor [Terah's father], Serug [Nahor's father], and Peleg [Serug's grandfather].

But why would such a long-standing heritage of prominence and renown come to an abrupt end and force Abraham out of Mesopotamia into Canaan? A Sumerian text from BC [at about the time Terah moved his family from Ur to Haran] could well hold the initial key, for it states, 'The gods have abandoned us like migrating birds. Smoke lies on our cities like a shroud'. From there Abraham, the founder of the Hebrew people, is said to have migrated to Canaan [comprising roughly the region of modern Israel and Lebanon].

Reportedly, the initial level of Israelite culture resembled that of its surroundings; it was neither wholly original nor primitive. The tribal structure resembled that of West Semitic steppe dwellers known from the 18th-century-B. The Kaaba is a shrine meaning cube in Arabic, that enclosed the idols of their gods.

Religious rituals were performed around the Kaaba which had a black stone embedded into a corner, said to be a gift to Abraham from the angel Gabriel for his belief in one god.

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By AD more than idols were housed within the Kaaba. This was the 'Middle Kingdom' under the rulers of the 12th Dynasty as opposed to the 'Old Kingdom' of the pyramid-builders. It is said that its sides were originally painted black on the North, blue-gray [or faded green] on the East, red on the South, white on the West, and yellow on the top Center platform. C to 1, B.

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In addition to incredible frescoes, indoor plumbing! When the earliest of these Central Asian corpses, nestled into the sands of tarim basin, about 2, B. Next door in Mesopotamia, the Sumerians were already dying out and Hammurabi was soon to set up his famous law code; the Greeks and Romans had not yet even arrived in Greece and Italy from the northeast. On the other hand, 'Ice Man,' the late Stone Age body found in by hikers in the Alps, had died well over a thousand years before. Ventarron was built long before Sipan, about 2, years before Christ, he said.

Some images have human characteristics, some are unknown and some are animal figures, including the cave's unmistakable signature foot-long leaping red panther. The animal guards the hollowed out cavern overlooking the Rio Grande about 50 miles west of Del Rio. Archaeologists had previously believed that such settlements, which went on to evolve into cities, only began developing toward the end of the middle Bronze Age.

Their conjunction in the predawn sky of February 1, B. Baktun 3. Baktun of the Sacred Mountain. Middle and New Kingdom in Egypt; relocation of center to Sacred Mountain of the West, Valley of the Kings, marks decision of Egyptians to perpetuate dynastic rule, consolidates pattern of defensive territorialism as norm for civilized life. Waves of invaders - Hittites, Aryans; destruction of Minoan, Indus civilizations. The 19th century was believed to be the time when Babylonia began compiling Old Sumerian history into epic form.

It spanned the period from the Late Neolithic to the early Bronze Age. In the Shandong area, it followed the Longshan culture period c. The culture was widely spread throughout Henan and Shanxi and later appeared in Shaanxi and Hubei.

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Chinese archaeologists generally identify the Erlitou culture as the site of the Xia dynasty, but there is no firm evidence, such as writing, to substantiate such a linkage. Egypt was invaded also by the desert nomadic tribes the Amorites who destroyed Palestine [Hyksos kingdom in Egypt]. It is within the records of ancient Sumer that Marduk's original prototype appears, and it is from these that we find the first account of Adam. A second wave of immigration was linked with Abraham's grandson Jacob, who was renamed Israel ['May God show his strength!

The Bible tells us that Jacob's sons, who became the ancestors of the twelve tribes of Israel, emigrated to Egypt during a sever famine in Canaan.

They said that they had been enslaved by the Egyptians but had been liberated by a deity called Yahweh, who was the god of their leader Moses. After they had forced their way into Canaan, they allied themselves with the Hebrews there and became known as the people of Israel. The Bible makes it clear that the people we know as the ancient Israelites were a confederation of various ethnic groups, bound together principally by their loyalty to Yahweh, the God of Moses. The biblical account was written down centuries later, however, in about the eigth century BCE, though it certainly drew on earlier narrative sources.

Buddha precedes Ashoka by two hundred and eighteen years. He can be reached at prithvi. It then entered a year period of greatness.

wan-chan.site/wp-content/97.php The later Greeks called it Babylon, and the region that had been thought of as Sumeria for years came to be called Babylonia. They had the capital at Avaris in northeastern Nile Delta. Excavations there show a gradual increase of Canaanite influence in the styles of pottery, architeture and tombs from around BCE. By B. February , p. Other dates associated with the writing of this epic include: 1, B.

He is rememberd, in history, chiefly because of a stone pillar, dating back to his reign, still exists. It is inscribed with a law-code.

Additional Resources About The Mesopotamians

Afterwards, his father Jacob [whose name was later changed to Israel] and seventy family members followed him into Goshen to escape the famine in Canaan. Notwithstanding this, Genesis , Exodus and Numbers all refer to 'the land of Ramesses' [Egyptian: 'the house of Ramesses'] - but this was a complex of grain storehouses built by the Israelites for Ramesses II in Goshen some years after they were supposedly there!

Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, roughly between — BC[4] the early Vedic period. There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities with the early Iranian Avesta, deriving from the Proto-Indo-Iranian times, often associated with the early Andronovo Sintashta-Petrovka culture of ca. By this time the Nubians have established sizable cities with a class society of workers, farmers, priests, soldiers bureaucrats and an aristocracy with technological and cultural skills on a level with other advanced civilizations of their day.

Even a quick and cursory glance at its inventory of signs makes it very apparent of this script's Egyptian origin. It is thought that at around 1, BCE, Sinai was conquered by Egypt for its turquoise mines and trade routes. Egyptian influence must have poured into the local West-Semitic speaking population, who, among other things, adopted a small number of hieroglyphic signs probably no more than 22 to write down their language.

In the Old Testament, the Hebrews never call their language 'Hebrew' or 'Israelite,' but quite correctly 'the language of Canaan. Mycenae, the great city of the Peloponnesus, was another earthquake victim about this time. They had imposed their religious ideas, which we find expressed in the collection of odes known as the Rig-Veda. There we find a multitude of Gods, expressing many of the same values as the deities of the Middle East presenting the forces of nature as instinct with power, life and personality.

Thus Babylon itself was supposed to be an image of heaven, with each of its temples a replica of a celestial palace.


This link with the divine world was celebrated and perpetuated annually in the great New Year Festival, which had been firmly established by the seventeenth century BCE. Celebrated in the holy city of Babylon during the month of Nisan - our April - the Festival solemnly enthroned the king and established his reign for another year. Yet this political stability could only endure insofar as it participated in the more enduring and effective government of the gods, who had brought order out of chaos when they had created the world.

The eleven sacred days of the Festival thus projected the participants outside profane time and into the sacred eternal world of the gods by means of ritual gestures. A scapegoat was killed to cancel the old, dying year; the public humiliation of the king and the enthronement of a carnival king in his place reproduced the original chaos; a mock battle reenacted the struggle of the gods against the forces of destruction.

Culture was felt to be a fragile achievement, which could always fall pray to the forces of disorder and disintegration. On the afternoon of the fourth day of the Festival, priests and choristers filed into the Holy of Holies to recite the Enuma Elish , the epic poem whic celebrated the victory of the gods over chaos. About BCE, Neolithic farmers constructed a large house with two large posts at each end to hold up the roof. And they founded a dynasty there that ruled Egypt with great cruelty for more than years.